American Education: Title IX

Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 was to prohibit the discrimination based upon gender or blindness from any educational institution or activities receiving federal money. Title IX was added as an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in 1972. Title IX (1972) is most famously known for closing the funding gap between men’s and women’s sports in colleges and universities. It is interesting to note that the original statute of Title IX made no explicit mention of sports, yet this is what Title IX is commonly associated with. The historical context in which Title IX was enacted is based upon the Women’s civil rights movement to abolish discriminatory treatment based on sex in order to close the gender gap.

Probably the most substantial thing I learned from Title IX (1972) was the statement mentioning no individual due to blindness or visual impairment could be denied to any course of study admission. In addition, I too only associated Title IX with athletics and never took the time to think about the implications it may have had on other educational activities. It was interesting to see all the areas where there is an exception to the ruling of Title IX (1972). I never affiliated many of the activities to even fall under Title IX’s jurisdictions. For example, girl scouts or boy scouts being in the exception Title IX (1972) has upon voluntary youth service organizations.

Title IX (1972) has been instrumental in closing the gender gap especially in education. This is evident today, as there is no longer a gender gap between men and women completing college. In addition, Title IX has also supported the efforts to increase the number of women administrators in the schools (Urban & Wagner, 2009). However, despite the efforts, women are still under-represented in administrative roles. In the scheme of things, Title IX has helped the education reform in the shaping of educational equality.

Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972, 20 U.S.C. sections 1681 – 1688 (1972).

Urban, W.J., & Wagoner, J.L. (2009). American education a history. New York: Routledge.


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